DeVine was born in Waterloo, Iowa, the son of Penny and Dennis DeVine. He graduated from Millard South High School in Omaha, Nebraska. He attended Coast College along with friend and fellow cast member Blake Anderson. He studied acting at the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco, and later moved to Los Angeles where he began working as a stand up comedian and actor.
In 2006, DeVine and friends Blake Anderson, Anders Holm, and Kyle Newacheck formed the sketch-comedy group Mail Order Comedy. Although they toured together live, the group found greater success on websites such as Myspace and YouTube. The G4 series Attack of the Show! featured "Wizards Never Die", a music video by Mail Order Comedy (as "The Wizards"), in April 2008.Purple Magic, a music album by "The Wizards" containing 14 tracks, was released on April 1, 2009. Comedy Central's original series Workaholics premiered on April 6, 2011, and stars DeVine, Anderson, and Holm and co-stars Newacheck, all of whom also serve as series creators and executive producers.
DeVine had small roles in Mama's Boy (2007) and National Lampoon's The Legend of Awesomest Maximus (2009). He had a recurring role on the television series Samantha Who?. He also appeared on an episode of the Fox show Traffic Light (2011). In season 4 of Community (2013), he played a small role as William Winger, Jr., Jeff Winger's half-brother. In the first episode of Arrested Development's fourth season, he played an airport ticket attendant alongside his Workaholics co-stars.
DeVine co-starred as Bumper in the 2012 musical comedy film Pitch Perfect. For the performance, he won a Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Villain and one nomination for Choice Movie Breakout. DeVine has appeared in SimCity video game trailers as "The Mayor".
He is the voice actor for the character Pizza Steve in the Cartoon Network animated series Uncle Grandpa, which premiered on September 2, 2013. DeVine is set to star in his own upcoming Comedy Central series Adam DeVine's House Party, announced in 2013.